Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Importance Of A Early Brain Development Essay

Successful early brain development is essential to many future aspects of positive physical and mental health. The community context I have chosen to analyse for this topic is a local residential college for university students in a metropolitan setting, established in 1952. Much of what I discuss will be derived from personal observations and statements or statistics collated by the Dean . 168 students (89 females and 79 males) approximately aged from 17 to 26 years of age, each from differing backgrounds reside in this community. 16% of residents are international whilst 42% originate from interstate and approximately 20% speak native languages other than English. The college is operated by, foremost the Principal and the Dean who both live on site with their families; also there is a college board, alumni and various other staff (administration, cleaning, cooking and maintenance staff) who all contribute to operating the college environment. Three ‘teams’ exist in the college: the Academic Team (tutors for students), the Residential Advisory Team (senior students responsible for new students’ transitioning and general wellbeing), and the College Club (largely responsible for social events). Most of the students have moved to the college from country towns to gain access to tertiary education, whilst others flock from locations all over Australia and internationally to study their chosen university degrees. The college is proud of its welcoming, multicultural community.Show MoreRelatedEssay on The Importance of Early Childhood Cognitive Development786 Words   |  4 PagesThe Importance of Early Childhood Cognitive Development America has many programs for graduating students that are involved with education and children. While any college student can appreciate education, I suspect that few understand the importance of early childhood development. Having committed to apply for a position in Teach for America, I want to better understand why it is so important to get em while theyre young. In 2001, the US Department of Education, Academy of the SciencesRead MorePoverty Influences Children s Early Brain Development1521 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty Influences Children’s Early Brain Development Children have been the topic of many research studies and debates throughout history. Scientists, educators, social workers and teachers have debated the importance of nature and nurture in children s development. Our ideas of children are shaped greatly by the portrayal of children through media. Producers, journalists, and writers have the power to either portray children as passive or active agents in their development of social, academic and lifeRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Is The Most Rapid Period Of Development960 Words   |  4 PagesAfter doing a little research I have come to the conclusion that Early Childhood Education is the most rapid period of development in a human brain. The years from conception through birth to eight years of age critical to the complete and healthy cognitive, emotional and physical growth of children. The brain is part of the central nervous system, and plays a decisive role in controlling many bodily functions, including both voluntary activities such as walking or speaking and involuntary onesRead MoreThe Importance Of A Child Brain Development933 Words   |  4 Pagesknowledgeable discussion on the importance of child brain development. Ms. Kees is proficient in the field, working with a non-profit organization that provides educational resources for adolescences and teenagers with mental and learning disabilities. I felt Ms. Kees would be a great fit for my interview because she constructs learning plans for individuals who were neglected an educational environment at an early age. Ms. Kees is experienced in early childhood development and has worked consistentlyRead MoreEarly Childhood Education And Development853 Words   |  4 PagesDuring this class, we have discussed many topics from the importance of Early Childhood Education, through all of the developmental stages an d into the roots of behavioral issues. I’d have to say out of all the topics, the importance of Early Childhood Education and how children develop and learn from week 2 is what has stuck out the most to me. I have even found myself explaining the importance to friends, with information I have learned from this course. For example, in a recent conversationRead MoreEarly Brain Development and Learning1582 Words   |  7 PagesIt is not commonly known that the brain is 90% developed by age five. Most people believe that at age five children are just starting to learn. In fact, the brain absorbs more from birth to age five rather than from age five on. Parents and family can do many things to aid in the development of a baby’s brain, ultimately assisting in their learning. The sequence and rate at which the brain develops predicts the optimal times for a baby to learn. Sequence and rate is measured by milestones that aRead MoreIntegration Of Arts And The Arts798 Words   |  4 PagesIntegration of Arts Paper The incorporation of music, movement, and the arts is critical to a young child’s learning, growth and development. Each of these creative arts allow children to make meaningful connections and retain the information being taught in the classroom. It also allows for children to focus more in the classroom and it improve their behavior as well. Multiple intelligences also play a role in music, movement, and the arts. By using these creative arts in the classroom, educatorsRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Our Understanding Of The Developing Brain1706 Words   |  7 PagesDiscuss ways in which modern (post 1950) neuroscientific research has had an impact on our understanding of the developing brain. Early stages of embryonic progression show how the human brain and nervous system start to occur at three weeks from contraception, with the closing of the neural tube and By four weeks, major sections of the brain can be distinguished in a simple form, including the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain divisions and optic vesicle, where the eye matures from. (Brainfacts.orgRead MoreNature Of Nature And Nurture906 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent stages in development. Children began to crawl then walk and then talk and you don’t see a child talking in full sentences before the child can walk. Children develop at different rates, but they go through the same stage for the most part. The brain is so complex. Teachers and parents play a huge role in someone’s life. Parents and teachers are pushing and helping children grow mentally. On page 34 in chapter two is says â€Å"supporting brain development studies of the brain indicate that stimulatingRead MoreChildhood Development E ssay946 Words   |  4 PagesChildhood begins a new era of development, one that is filled with exploration and a new understanding of the world. Children are finally beginning to understand aspects of their environment that they were unable to comprehend during infancy. While development during childhood occurs less rapidly than that which is experienced during infancy, there are still many major changes that children go through during this time. During childhood, children experience physical and cognitive growth, create new

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Southwest Airlines. Thesis Statement Southwest Airlines

Southwest Airlines Thesis Statement: Southwest Airlines have never made promises it could not keep and considering its history makes it obvious. One of the strengths, which in my opinion emphasizes the company s characteristics best, is the explanation of the organization by its employees, as a whole. Introduction A half a century ago, Rollin King and Herb Kelleher decided to join together and to start a different sort of airline. So, in 1967 South West Airlines was started. However, the company’s name at the time was Air Southwest and then subsequently changed to South West Airlines as it progressed. In 1971 it started operating as an interstate airline within Texas. Moreover, the expansion of the flight began in 1975, to cities all†¦show more content†¦Ã¯  ¶How the Company Uses Effective Change Management Tools. ï  ¶How They Develop High-Performing Teams. ï  ¶How The Company Manages Conflict. Southwest airline views their meaning as connecting people with what’s really important to them. They don’t just look at themselves as carriers or transporters of people, but as ones who help people get to people or places they care about in distant places. However, this may be perceived as a small distinction, still it may make a huge difference in how important an employee realizes and understands his/her job. Furthermore, the company has a strong, understandable intention linked emotionally with employees, it engages with. Southwest Airlines hire the right talent. The important thing that the company thinks is that they hire people who are a perfect fit in their surroundings/environment, as they wanted the each and every employee to take part in all discussions and their 100% contribution in the growth of the company, as well as, its improvement. The key steps the company focused on were more than just skills, so they hired the people who had the attitude to improve on. Furthermore, there was always a strict hiring process, in order to, choose the best candidates for the job who and meet the company’s criteria and requirements, and on that grounds peer hiring process was shaped and formed for hiring the ideal person, who possess intelligence,Show MoreRelatedSouthwest Airlines Case Analysis Essay4607 Words   |  19 PagesSouthwest History 1966: Rollin King marched into Herb Kelleher’s law office with a plan to start a low-cost/low-fare airline that would shuttle passengers between San Antonio, Dallas, and Houston. Thought of this idea because businessmen were complaining about the commute. 1967: Kelleher filed papers to incorporate the new airline and submitted an application to the Texas Aeronautics Commission for the new company to serve Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio. ------4 year legal and regulatoryRead MoreSouthwest Airlines Case Study in 2010 Essay21106 Words   |  85 PagesInstructor Case: Southwest Airlines in 2010 Dr. Deb Sircar University of Greenwich Business School http://create.mcgraw-hill.com Copyright 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisherRead MoreThe Effectiveness of the Marketing Strategy Adopted by the Low-Cost Airlines1076 Words   |  5 PagesEffectiveness Of The Marketing Strategy Adopted By The Low-Cost Airlines INTRODUCTION This research proposal aims to describe a proposed research study that will examine the effectiveness of the marketing strategy adopted by the low-cost airlines in the US and UK and speculate if this strategy will allow them to succeed in the current economic scenario. If the global recession has hit any industry the hardest, it is the airline industry. The airline industry suffered its largest drop ever in passengerRead MoreCompany Case13378 Words   |  54 Pagestime. This low-cost airline had survived almost two years in an extremely tough industry and, in addition, claimed to have been proï ¬ table since its inaugural ï ¬â€šight on 1 August 2001. Gidon Novick, Comair Limited’s executive manager of marketing, was involved in kulula.com’s somewhat unusual communication strategy from day one and maintained a close relationship with the advertising agency, morrisjonesco. The brand had been very effectively established and the airline had received two awards:Read MoreDrafting Body For Insurance Clauses, The And Terrorism Risks2258 Words   |  10 Pagesdiscussion among airlines, insurers. Zhou and Hud (2012) submit a study on china airline and mention republic China has made preventive measures to protect and airplanes in the safeguard of potential risks, any terrorist or crisis, and the formation advanced of a communications network with different countries of the world to exchange information about problems and potential threats. 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Unions in Canada Free Essays

Abstract Unions have been struggling in Canada’s current economy. The rate of workers joining unions is on a downward slide, noticeably so in the public sector, despite the fact the unions helped to stabilize and grow the economy in the past. Due to the current economic turmoil, unions have had to resort to strategies that will allow them to lower operating costs and compete with global competitors. We will write a custom essay sample on Unions in Canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although unions are facing difficulties, they are still of benefit to workers. History of Unions in Canada and their Effects on the Economy Unions have been apart of Canadian history since the early 1800’s. Records show tradesmen in the Maritimes having unions during the war of 1812 despite such organizations not being legalized in Canada until 1872 (Maple Leaf Web). Approximately 31% of all workers in Canada belong to unions (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada)(Canadian Labour Congress). The public sector – including schools, hospitals, and crown corporations – have a unionization rate of 71%, while in the private sector the rate is 16% and falling (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2012). Historians have credited the growth in Canada’s middle-class to unions because they offered higher wages and job security, which allowed for members to have extra income to spend on commodities such houses, clothing, cars, etcetera. This increased the demand for those items, and helped grow and stabilize the economy (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). Although unions were of benefit in the past, membership has been on a 30-year decline (Figure 1) and the usefulness of such organizations has come into question due to unionized workers pay and benefits lagging behind workers who are non-unionized (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2012). This report will cover the history of unions in Canada, and their impact on the Canadian economy. The factors covered suggest that unions are still of benefit at the present. History of Unions in Canada The Canadian union movement was influenced by Britain and the United States (Class Net)(Maple Leaf Web). British tradesmen brought over the tradition of the organizations and caused several British unions to open branches in Canada. However, unions weren’t legalized in Canada until 1872 after the Toronto Printers’ Strike (workers were protesting for nine-hour work days), and the first national labour organization was the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada (TLC), which was formed in 1873 (Maple Leaf Web). Early legislation of unions was derived from the British structure, while the current legislation has been developed from post-World War 2 United States unions (Class Net). Members have historically been those in the trades – electricians, miners, construction workers, etc -, nursing, teaching, journalism, artistic fields, and athletics (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). Unions and the Economy In the past unions helped stabilize and grow the economy by decreasing the divide between rich and poor. In current economic times, unionization rates have fallen (Figure 1) causing the pay difference between unionized and non-unionized workers to grow (Figure 2) (Mine Mill 598). This has resulted in workers not having the excess income to spend to help the economy recover, or the money to pay extra taxes to support public services such as schools, roads, and health care. Despite this difference, United Food and Commercial Workers Canada (UFCW) has stated that even workers who have never belonged to a union have benefited by their existence, and that Canada is one of the top five most prosperous countries in the world because of them (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). The Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) states that union members earn almost $7 per hour more then non-unionized workers, and that number increases to $7. 95 per hour for many women. They also state that 88. 5% of members receive benefits not related to wage, such as prescription drugs and dental plans, and that 92. 3% of large workplaces have pension plans, where as only 68. 4% of non-unionized workplaces have them. For small, non-unionized workplaces, 31. 1% offered health-related benefits, and only 12. 5% had pension plans. In small workplaces that were unionized, those numbers climb to 47. 6% and 34. % respectively (Canadian Labour Congress). However, due to global rivals in various fields of work operating at lower costs, Canadian unions have begun to implement two-tier wages; a technique that was used in the 1980s and 1990s. It involves workers under new contracts to start a lower wages then previously contracted members. New workers will be on par with existing workers after 10 ye ars, though some industries – the auto manufacturing industry, for example – have fought to ensure new workers never converge with current employees wages. It is believed such strategies will be common in the future (Globe and Mail, 2012). Conclusion Unions were extremely beneficial for workers when they were first introduced due to the bonuses they offered, increased wages, job security, and the effects such extras would have on the over all economy. In the current economy unions are viewed as unneeded, which has stemmed the decline in unionization rates and prevented the organizations from being as useful as they could be. Unions are facing struggles in the current economy, but despite such troubles they are still of use in the present because their impact reaches further then just their members, and helps to stabilize the economy. References Maple Leaf Web. History of Unions in Canada. Retrieved From: http://www. mapleleafweb. com/old/education/spotlight/issue_51/history. html United Food and Commercial Workers Canada (UFCW). Facts About Unions. Retrieved from: http://www. ufcw. ca/index. php? option=com_contentview=articleid=29Itemid=49lang=en#link3 Canadian Labour Congress (CLC). Union Advantage. Retrieved from: http://www. canadianlabour. ca/about-clc/union-advantage Canadian Broadcast Corporation (CBC). (2012). Unions on Decline in Private Sector. Retrieved from: http://www. cbc. ca/news/canada/story/2012/09/02/unions-labour-canada-decline. html Class Net. History and Development of Unions in Canada. Retrieved from: https://classnet. wcdsb. ca/sec/StB/Gr12/History/law/Shared%20Documents/Labour%20Law/(A)HistoryandDevelopmentofUNIONSinCanada. pdf Mine Mill 598. (2009). Unionization Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www. minemill598. com/PDF/editorials/UNIONIZATION_FactSheets_Sept2009. pdf Globe and Mail. (2012). Two-Tier Wage Scales on the Increase in Canada. How to cite Unions in Canada, Essay examples

Unions in Canada Free Essays

Abstract Unions have been struggling in Canada’s current economy. The rate of workers joining unions is on a downward slide, noticeably so in the public sector, despite the fact the unions helped to stabilize and grow the economy in the past. Due to the current economic turmoil, unions have had to resort to strategies that will allow them to lower operating costs and compete with global competitors. We will write a custom essay sample on Unions in Canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although unions are facing difficulties, they are still of benefit to workers. History of Unions in Canada and their Effects on the Economy Unions have been apart of Canadian history since the early 1800’s. Records show tradesmen in the Maritimes having unions during the war of 1812 despite such organizations not being legalized in Canada until 1872 (Maple Leaf Web). Approximately 31% of all workers in Canada belong to unions (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada)(Canadian Labour Congress). The public sector – including schools, hospitals, and crown corporations – have a unionization rate of 71%, while in the private sector the rate is 16% and falling (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2012). Historians have credited the growth in Canada’s middle-class to unions because they offered higher wages and job security, which allowed for members to have extra income to spend on commodities such houses, clothing, cars, etcetera. This increased the demand for those items, and helped grow and stabilize the economy (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). Although unions were of benefit in the past, membership has been on a 30-year decline (Figure 1) and the usefulness of such organizations has come into question due to unionized workers pay and benefits lagging behind workers who are non-unionized (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2012). This report will cover the history of unions in Canada, and their impact on the Canadian economy. The factors covered suggest that unions are still of benefit at the present. History of Unions in Canada The Canadian union movement was influenced by Britain and the United States (Class Net)(Maple Leaf Web). British tradesmen brought over the tradition of the organizations and caused several British unions to open branches in Canada. However, unions weren’t legalized in Canada until 1872 after the Toronto Printers’ Strike (workers were protesting for nine-hour work days), and the first national labour organization was the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada (TLC), which was formed in 1873 (Maple Leaf Web). Early legislation of unions was derived from the British structure, while the current legislation has been developed from post-World War 2 United States unions (Class Net). Members have historically been those in the trades – electricians, miners, construction workers, etc -, nursing, teaching, journalism, artistic fields, and athletics (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). Unions and the Economy In the past unions helped stabilize and grow the economy by decreasing the divide between rich and poor. In current economic times, unionization rates have fallen (Figure 1) causing the pay difference between unionized and non-unionized workers to grow (Figure 2) (Mine Mill 598). This has resulted in workers not having the excess income to spend to help the economy recover, or the money to pay extra taxes to support public services such as schools, roads, and health care. Despite this difference, United Food and Commercial Workers Canada (UFCW) has stated that even workers who have never belonged to a union have benefited by their existence, and that Canada is one of the top five most prosperous countries in the world because of them (United Food and Commercial Workers Canada). The Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) states that union members earn almost $7 per hour more then non-unionized workers, and that number increases to $7. 95 per hour for many women. They also state that 88. 5% of members receive benefits not related to wage, such as prescription drugs and dental plans, and that 92. 3% of large workplaces have pension plans, where as only 68. 4% of non-unionized workplaces have them. For small, non-unionized workplaces, 31. 1% offered health-related benefits, and only 12. 5% had pension plans. In small workplaces that were unionized, those numbers climb to 47. 6% and 34. % respectively (Canadian Labour Congress). However, due to global rivals in various fields of work operating at lower costs, Canadian unions have begun to implement two-tier wages; a technique that was used in the 1980s and 1990s. It involves workers under new contracts to start a lower wages then previously contracted members. New workers will be on par with existing workers after 10 ye ars, though some industries – the auto manufacturing industry, for example – have fought to ensure new workers never converge with current employees wages. It is believed such strategies will be common in the future (Globe and Mail, 2012). Conclusion Unions were extremely beneficial for workers when they were first introduced due to the bonuses they offered, increased wages, job security, and the effects such extras would have on the over all economy. In the current economy unions are viewed as unneeded, which has stemmed the decline in unionization rates and prevented the organizations from being as useful as they could be. Unions are facing struggles in the current economy, but despite such troubles they are still of use in the present because their impact reaches further then just their members, and helps to stabilize the economy. References Maple Leaf Web. History of Unions in Canada. Retrieved From: http://www. mapleleafweb. com/old/education/spotlight/issue_51/history. html United Food and Commercial Workers Canada (UFCW). Facts About Unions. Retrieved from: http://www. ufcw. ca/index. php? option=com_contentview=articleid=29Itemid=49lang=en#link3 Canadian Labour Congress (CLC). Union Advantage. Retrieved from: http://www. canadianlabour. ca/about-clc/union-advantage Canadian Broadcast Corporation (CBC). (2012). Unions on Decline in Private Sector. Retrieved from: http://www. cbc. ca/news/canada/story/2012/09/02/unions-labour-canada-decline. html Class Net. History and Development of Unions in Canada. Retrieved from: https://classnet. wcdsb. ca/sec/StB/Gr12/History/law/Shared%20Documents/Labour%20Law/(A)HistoryandDevelopmentofUNIONSinCanada. pdf Mine Mill 598. (2009). Unionization Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www. minemill598. com/PDF/editorials/UNIONIZATION_FactSheets_Sept2009. pdf Globe and Mail. (2012). Two-Tier Wage Scales on the Increase in Canada. How to cite Unions in Canada, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Research Proposal on Outsourcing Essay Example

Research Proposal on Outsourcing Paper Outsourcing is the practice of the transmission of certain business processes and functions of one company to the sourcing of another company, which works in the same sphere. Outsourcing is the youngest business process, which is considered to be very effective for both sides which signed the contract. When one company can not or does not want to carry out some processes, mostly connected with finance, it can devote this job to the related company. The main advantage of outsourcing is that the company can get rid of the work connected with calculation and finance and use the released workforce to develop some new branches and new productions of the company. For example, the company can devote energy and material supply to another company and simply concentrate on production of the goods and improving their quality of technology and developing new kinds of goods. Other typical functions transmitted for outsourcing are advertising, translation, transportation services, network security, etc. Outsourcing is widely practised in the world and many companies owe their success to it. Without outsourcing every company would be like a small system, which has to do much work in order to exist and prosper. When a student is asked to prepare a research proposal on outsourcing, he is expected to offer a range of new solutions and ideas connected with the improvement of the practice of outsourcing. Students mostly write proposals when they have brainstormed interesting new ideas connected with the topic under research and in order to persuade the professor their investigation is useful, they have to write a convincing proposal on the topic. A good research proposal should be informative, logical and interesting. One should not include odd data into the paper but be as brief as possible. Then, the paper should be written in a special emotional way and contain reliable evidence which will persuade the professor that the topic is worth attention at once. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Outsourcing specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Outsourcing specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Outsourcing specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Writing the proposal a student should devote much efforts to get to know about the topic under investigation much. When one knows about the problem, he is able to analyze it successfully and draw sober objective conclusions. In order to get to know about outsourcing in more concrete cases it is useful to read free sample research proposals on outsourcing in the Internet. One can easily find a great number of well-organized papers on this topic and learn many new facts about it. The structure of the proposal is a serious problem for nearly every student, so young people require good help of the professional. If you read a free example research proposal on outsourcing in India, you will learn to format the paper correctly, compose the paper logically and in the proper convincing manner. *** ATTENTION! Free sample research proposals and research paper examples on Outsourcing are 100% plagiarized!!! At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Outsourcing topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated Ph.D. and Master’s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Andrew Cunningham - Admiral Andrew Cunningham - World War II - Royal Navy

Andrew Cunningham - Admiral Andrew Cunningham - World War II - Royal Navy Andrew Cunningham - Early Life Career: Andrew Browne Cunningham was born January 7, 1883, outside Dublin, Ireland. The son of anatomy professor Daniel Cunningham and his wife Elizabeth, the Cunninghams family was of Scottish extraction. Largely raised by his mother, he began schooling in Ireland before being sent to Scotland to attend the Edinburgh Academy. At the age of ten, he accepted his fathers offer of pursuing a naval career and left Edinburgh to enter the Naval Preparatory School at Stubbington House. In 1897, Cunningham was accepted as a cadet in the Royal Navy and assigned to the training school aboard HMS Britannia at Dartmouth. Highly interested in seamanship, he proved a strong student and graduated 10th in a class of 68 the following April. Ordered to HMS Doris as a midshipman, Cunningham traveled to the Cape of Good Hope. While there, the Second Boer War began ashore. Believing there to be opportunity for advancement on land, he transferred to the Naval Brigade and saw action in Pretoria and Diamond Hill. Returning to sea, Cunningham moved through several ships before commencing sub-lieutenants courses at Portsmouth and Greenwich. Passing, he was promoted and assigned to HMS Implacable. Andrew Cunningham - World War I: Promoted to lieutenant in 1904, Cunningham passed through several peacetime postings before receiving his first command, HM Torpedo Boat #14 four years later. In 1911, Cunningham was placed in command of the destroyer HMS Scorpion. Aboard at the outbreak of World War I, he took part in the failed pursuit of the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and cruiser SMS Breslau. Remaining in the Mediterranean, Scorpion participated in the early 1915 attack on the Dardanelles at the beginning of the Gallipoli Campaign. For his performance, Cunningham was promoted to commander and received the Distinguished Service Order. Over the next two years, Cunningham took part in routine patrol and convoy duty in the Mediterranean. Seeking action, he requested a transfer and returned to Britain in January 1918. Given command of HMS Termagent in Vice Admiral Roger Keyes Dover Patrol, he performed well and earned a bar for his DSO. With the end of the war, Cunningham moved to HMS Seafire and in 1919 received orders to sail for the Baltic. Serving under Rear Admiral Walter Cowan, he worked to keep the sea lanes open to newly independent Estonia and Latvia. For this service he was awarded a second bar for his DSO. Andrew Cunningham - Interwar Years: Promoted to captain in 1920, Cunningham moved through a number of senior destroyer commands and later served as Fleet Captain and Chief of Staff to Cowan in the North America and West Indies Squadron. He also attended the Army Senior Officers School and the Imperial Defense College. Upon completing the latter, he received his first major command, the battleship HMS Rodney. In September 1932, Cunningham was elevated to rear admiral and made Aide-de-Camp to King George V. Returning to the Mediterranean Fleet the following year, he oversaw its destroyers which relentlessly trained in ship handling. Raised to vice admiral in 1936, he was made second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet and placed in charge of its battlecruisers. Highly regarded by the Admiralty, Cunningham received orders to return to Britain in 1938 to assume the post of Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff. Taking this position in December, he was knighted the following month. Performing well in London, Cunningham received his dream posting on June 6, 1939, when he was made commander of the Mediterranean Fleet. Hoisting his flag aboard HMS Warspite, he began planning for operations against the Italian Navy in case of war. Andrew Cunningham - World War II: With the beginning of World War II in September 1939, Cunninghams primary focus became protecting the convoys that supplied British forces in Malta and Egypt. With the defeat of France in June 1940, Cunningham was forced to enter into tense negotiations with Admiral Rene-Emile Godfroy regarding the status of the French squadron at Alexandria. These talks were complicated when the French admiral learned of the British attack on Mers-el-Kebir. Through skillful diplomacy, Cunningham succeeded in convincing the French to allow their ships to be interned and their men repatriated. Though his fleet had won several engagements against the Italians, Cunningham sought to dramatically alter the strategic situation and reduce the threat to Allied convoys. Working with the Admiralty, a daring plan was conceived which called for a nighttime air strike against the Italian fleets anchorage at Taranto. Moving forward on November 11-12, 1940, Cunninghams fleet approached the Italian base and launched torpedo planes from HMS Illustrious. A success, the Taranto Raid sank one battleship and badly damaged two more. The raid was extensively studied by the Japanese when planning their attack on Pearl Harbor. In late March 1941, under heavy pressure from Germany to halt the Allied convoys, the Italian fleet sortied under the command of Admiral Angelo Iachino. Informed of enemy movements by Ultra radio intercepts, Cunningham met the Italians and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Cape Matapan on March 27-29. In the battle, three Italian heavy cruisers were sunk and a battleship damaged in exchange for three British killed. That May, following the Allied defeat on Crete, Cunningham successfully rescued over 16,000 men from the island despite taking heavy losses from Axis aircraft. Andrew Cunningham - Later War: In April 1942, with the United States now in the war, Cunningham was appointed to the naval staff mission to Washington, DC and built a strong relationship with the Commander-in-Chief of the US Fleet, Admiral Ernest King. As a result of these meetings, he was given command of the Allied Expeditionary Force, under General Dwight D. Eisenhower, for the Operation Torch landings in North Africa late that fall. Promoted to admiral of the fleet, he returned to the Mediterranean Fleet in February 1943, and worked tirelessly to ensure that no Axis forces would escape from North Africa. With the conclusion of the campaign, he again served under Eisenhower in commanding the naval elements of the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and the landings in Italy that September. With the collapse of Italy, he was present at Malta on September 10 to witness the formal surrender of the Italian fleet. Following the death of the First Sea Lord, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, Cunningham was appointed to the post on October 21. Returning to London, he served as a member of the Chiefs of Staff committee and provided overall strategic direction for the Royal Navy. In this role, Cunningham attended the major conferences at Cairo, Tehran, Quebec, Yalta and Potsdam during which plans for the invasion of Normandy and defeat of Japan were formulated. Cunningham remained First Sea Lord through the end of the war until his retirement in May 1946. Andrew Cunningham - Later Life: For his wartime service, Cunningham was created Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope. Retiring to Bishops Waltham in Hampshire, he lived in a house that he and his wife, Nona Byatt (m. 1929), had purchased before the war. During his retirement, he held several ceremonial titles including Lord High Steward at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. Cunningham died at London on June 12, 1963, and was buried at sea off Portsmouth. A bust was unveiled in Trafalgar Square in London on April 2, 1967 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in his honor. Selected Sources History of War: Admiral Andrew Cunningham Royal Navy Museum: Andrew Cunningham

Sunday, March 1, 2020

General Jimmy Doolittle - World War II

General Jimmy Doolittle - World War II Jimmy Doolittle - Early Life: Born on December 14, 1896, James Harold Doolittle was the son of Frank and Rose Doolittle of Alameda, CA. Spending part of his youth in Nome, AK, Doolittle quickly developed a reputation as boxer and became the amateur flyweight champion of the West Coast. Attending Los Angeles City College, he transferred to the University of California-Berkeley in 1916. With the US entry into World War I, Doolittle left school and enlisted in the Signal Corps reserve as a flying cadet in October 1917. While training at the School of Military Aeronautics and Rockwell Field, Doolittle married Josephine Daniels on December 24. Jimmy Doolittle - World War I: Commissioned a second lieutenant on March 11, 1918, Doolittle was assigned to Camp John Dick Aviation Concentration Camp, TX as a flying instructor. He served in this role at various airfields for the duration of the conflict. While posted to Kelly Field and Eagle Pass, TX, Doolittle flew patrols along the Mexican border in support of Border Patrol operations. With the wars conclusion later that year, Doolittle was selected for retention and given a Regular Army commission. After being promoted to first lieutenant in July 1920, he attended the Air Service Mechanical School and Aeronautical Engineering Course. Jimmy Doolittle - Interwar Years: After completing these courses, Doolittle was permitted to return to Berkeley to complete his undergraduate degree. He achieved national fame in September 1922, when he flew a de Havilland DH-4, equipped with early navigational instruments, across the United States from Florida to California. For this feat, he was given the Distinguished Flying Cross. Assigned to McCook Field, OH as a test pilot and aeronautical engineer, Doolittle entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1923, to begin work on his masters degree. Given two years by the US Army to complete his degree, Doolittle began conducting aircraft acceleration tests at McCook. These provided the basis for his masters thesis and earned him a second Distinguished Flying Cross. Finishing his degree a year early, he commenced work towards his doctorate which he received in 1925. That same year he won the Schneider Cup race, for which he received the 1926 Mackay Trophy. Though injured during a demonstration tour in 1926, Doolittle remained on the leading edge of aviation innovation. Working from McCook and Mitchell Fields, he pioneered instrument flying and assisted in developing the artificial horizon and directional gyroscope that are standard in modern aircraft. Utilizing these tools, he became the first pilot to take off, fly, and land using only instruments in 1929. For this feat of blind flying, he later won the Harmon Trophy. Moving to the private sector in 1930, Doolittle resigned his regular commission and accepted one as a major in the reserves upon becoming the head of Shell Oils Aviation Department. While working at Shell, Doolittle aided in developing new higher-octane aircraft fuels and continued his racing career. After winning the Bendix Trophy Race in 1931, and the Thompson Trophy Race in 1932, Doolittle announced his retirement from racing, stating, I have yet to hear anyone engaged in this work dying of old age. Tapped to serve on the Baker Board to analyze the reorganization of the air corps, Doolittle returned to active service on July 1, 1940, and was assigned to the Central Air Corps Procurement District where he consulted with auto makers about transitioning their plants to build aircraft. Jimmy Doolittle - World War II: Following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor and the US entry into World War II, Doolittle was promoted to lieutenant colonel and transferred to Headquarters Army Air Force to aid in planning an attack against the Japanese home islands. Volunteering to lead the raid, Doolittle planned to fly sixteen B-25 Mitchell medium bombers off the deck the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, bomb targets in Japan, then fly through to bases in China. Approved by General Henry Arnold, Doolittle relentlessly trained his volunteer crews in Florida before embarking aboard Hornet. Sailing under a veil of secrecy, Hornets task force was spotted by Japanese picket on April 18, 1942. Though 170 miles short of their intended launch point, Doolittle decided to immediately commence the operation. Taking off, the raiders successfully hit their targets and proceeded on to China where most were forced to bail out short of their intended landing sites. Though the raid inflicted little material damage, it provided a massive boost to Allied morale and forced the Japanese to redeploy their forces to protect the home islands. For leading the strike, Doolittle received the Congressional Medal of Honor. Directly promoted to brigadier general the day after the raid, Doolittle was briefly assigned to the Eighth Air Force in Europe that July, before being posted to the Twelfth Air Force in North Africa. Promoted again in November (to major general), Doolittle was given command of the Northwest African Strategic Air Forces in March 1943, which consisted of both American and British units. A rising star in the US Army Air Forces high command, Doolittle briefly led the Fifteenth Air Force, before taking over the Eighth Air Force in England. Assuming command of the Eighth, with the rank of lieutenant general, in January 1944, Doolittle oversaw its operations against the Luftwaffe in northern Europe. Among the notable changes he made was allowing escorting fighters to leave their bomber formations to attack German airfields. This aided in preventing German fighters from launching as well as assisted in allowing the Allies to gain air superiority. Doolittle led the Eighth until September 1945, and was in the process of planning for its redeployment to the Pacific Theater of Operations when the war ended. Jimmy Doolittle - Postwar: With the postwar reduction of forces, Doolittle reverted to reserve status on May 10, 1946. Returning to Shell Oil, he accepted a position as a vice president and director. In his reserve role, he served as a special assistant to the Air Force chief of staff and advised on technical issues which ultimately led to the US space program and the Air Forces ballistic missile program. Retiring completely from the military in 1959, he later served as chairman of the board of Space Technology Laboratories. A final honor was bestowed upon Doolittle on April 4, 1985, when he was promoted to general on the retired list by President Ronald Reagan. Doolittle died September 27, 1993, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Selected Sources Doolittle Raiders: First Joint ActionCalifornia State Military Museum: General Jimmy Doolittle